Porter, M. E. (2014). Clusters and Shared Value: Drivers of Competitiveness. In: Bogotá Chamber of Commerce. Bogotá, Colombia, 6 May 2014. Boston: Harvard Business School.

자료정리: 김예영

Thinking Strategically


  • The worst error in strategy is to compete with rivals on the same dimensions

Business Strategy Drivers of Company Performance

Industry Structure(Industry Attractiveness) ▶ Strategic Positioning Within the Industry(Sustainable Competitive Advantage)

  • Company economic performance results from two distinct causes
  • Companies need to also focus on the health of the industry, which can be as important as a company‘s own position

Operational Effectiveness Versus Strategy

Operational Effectiveness Strategic Positioning
•Assimilating, attaining, and extending best practices

•Doing the same things better and better

Validating and Executing

•Creating a unique value proposition

•Doing things differently to deliver distinctive value

Making Choices


Tests of a Successful Strategy

  • A unique value proposition compared to competitors
  • A distinctive value chain involving clear choices about how the company will operate differently to deliver its value proposition
  • Making clear tradeoffs, and choosing what not to do
  • Integrating activity choices across the value chain to fit together and reinforce each other
  • Continuity of strategic direction with continuous improvement in realizing the unique value proposition

What is a Cluster? Tourism in Cairns, Australia porter-2014

Why Clusters Matter?

  • Clusters increase productivity and operational efficiency
  • Clusters stimulate and enable innovations
  • Clusters facilitate commercialization and new business formation

  • Clusters reflect the fundamental importance to productivity and innovation of linkages and spill-overs across firms and associated institutions

The Role of Business in Society Evolving Approaches

Philanthropy Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Creating Shared Value (CSV)
•Donations to worthy social causes



•Compliance with community standards

•Good corporate citizenship

• “Sustainability”


•Mitigating risk and harm

•Improving trust and reputation

•Addressing societal needs and challenges with a business model


CSR versus Shared Value Fair Trade

Fair Trade

•Paying a higher price to farmers for the same products

Certification as a fair trade company

Transforming Procurement

•Collaborate with farmers to improve quality and yield

•Supporting investments in technology and inputs

•Higher prices for better quality

•Higher yield increases quantity produced

Environmental impact also improved

Levels of Shared Value

1)Reconceiving needs, products, and customers

  • Meeting societal needs through products and services
  • Serving unserved or underserved customers

2) Redefining productivity in the value chain

  • Utilizing resources, energy, suppliers, logistics, and employees differently and better

3) Improving the local and regional business environment

  • Improving skills, the supplier base, the regulatory environment, and the supporting institutions that affect the business
  • Strengthening the cluster on which the company depends

  • Strengthens the link between company success and community success