PORTER, M. E. (2012). What is Strategy: Issues for the World Bank. In: World Bank Strategy Discussion. Washington, D.C., 2 August 2012. Boston: Harvard Business School. 원문보기

자료정리: 김예영

Defining a Strategy

Strategy is different than aspirations

“Our strategy is to be #1 or #2…”

“Our strategy is to be the world leader…”

“Our strategy is to grow…”

“Our strategy is to provide superior returns to our shareholders…”

Strategy is more than a particular action

“Our strategy is to merge…”

“… internationalize…”

“… consolidate the industry…”

“… outsource…”

“…double our R&D budget…”

Strategy is not the same as vision / values

“Our strategy is to advance technology for mankind …”

– “…to be ethical…”

Strategy defines the organization’s distinctive approach to competing and the competitive advantages on which it will be based

The Goals of Social Organizations

  • In business, the unifying goal is long term profitability

– Profitability measures economic value creation

  • The fundamental purpose of a social enterprise is societal value creation


  • Social organizations must define their customer or customers
  • The desired societal outcome for these customers must be quantified and measured
  • Social organizations often pursue multiple societal outcomes, which requires multiple measured goals
  • Understanding the full costs of delivering outcomes is essential to ensure that true value is being created, e.g. cost per recipient

Strategic Questions for the World Bank

  1. What is the purpose and measurable goals of the World Bank?
  2. What is unique about the World Bank versus other stakeholders?
  3. Who are the Bank’s customers and how should they be segmented?
  4. How should the World Bank create value for its chosen customer groups?
  5. What are the World Bank Group’s “products” and how should they be integrated and leveraged across the entire organization to serve customers?
  6. What organizational structure and culture will enable the World Bank to best achieve this goal?

What underlying development model informs and integrates the activities of the World Bank in its engagement with clients?